- Intsia spp., Caesalpiniaceae family
- Intsia bijuga
- Intsia palembanica
Marbau, merbau, merbo, taritih (Java); marbon, merbau asam, merbau darat, merbau pantai (Sumatra); alai, anglai, ipil, jumelai, maharau, merbau (Borneo); Bayam, gefi, ipi, ipil, langgiri, ogifi (Celebes); aisele, dowora, falai, ipi, ipil, kayu besi (Moluccas); Doma, fimpi, ipi, ipir (East Nusa Tenggara); bau, kayu besi, pas, sekka (Papua).
OTHER COMMON NAMES
Go-nuoc (Viet Nam); Ipil, Ipil laut (Pl); Kwila (Papua New Guine); Lumpho, Lumpaw, Maka-mong(Thailand); Moluccan iron-wood (United Kingdom); Mirabow (United Kingdom, USA); Inzia (ltalia); Moluks ijzerhou (NI); Merbau (France, Germany, Italia, NI, Spain, Sweden).
All over Sumatra, Borneo and Celebes, West Java, Central Java, Moluccas, East Nusa Tenggara, Papua(Irian Jaya).
The tree stands 40 m tall, the clear bole is 4 to 30 m long, and the diameter is 100 cm. The buttress root is 4 m tall and 4 m width. The outside bark color is gray, gray to brown, light brown or light red. I. bijuga has shallow grooves bark. I. palambanica hasn't grove bark. The bark some peeled and some has a lot of peeled. The bark is tights and has black or dark red resin.
The heartwood is brown-gray, brown-yellow, brown-red or black. The sapwood is light yellow. The sapwood has 5 - 7,5 cm tights. The sapwood can be differed from heartwood.
The wood texture is evenly coarse.
The grain is straight or occasionally slightly interlocked.
The wood surface is smooth.
The wood surface is glossy.
The vessels is spread, solitary and in grouped of 2 to 3 in radial direction, rarely clustered, The diameter is 150-200 m, the frequency is 1 to 2 per mm2.
The apotracheal parenchyma has the shape of complete borders to the vessels.
The rays are uniseriate and multiseriate, 50 to 125 m wide, 300 to 400 m high, and have frequency of 4 to 6 per mm.
The fibre length is 1181 m with a diameter of 21.6 m.
0.84 (0.63 - 1.04) g/cm3
Shrinkage to oven-dry condition of I. bijuga is 3.3% (Radial) and 4.1% (Tangential).
Shrinkage to air-dry condition of I. palembanica is 0.6% (Radial) and 0.7% (Tangential).
Fibre Saturation Point
|Bending strength||115 mPa||16679 psi|
|Modulus of elasticity||15440 mPa||2239 1000psi|
|Crushing strength||74 mPa||10733 psi|
|JANKA Hardness||8.56 kN||1925 lbs force|
note: at 12% moisture content
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (I. bijuga)
Cold water 11.3%
Hot water 8.2%
1% NaOH 2.9%
DURABILITY AND TREATABILITY
Fungi - Class 1 - 2 - Very Durable to Durable
Dry Wood Borers - Heartwood durable
Termites - Class D - Durable (see "Bangkirai and Merbau Termite Resistance")
Merbau wood is difficult to treat.
Merbau wood can be dried satisfactorily without incurring significant defect.
Seasoning of 2.5 cm thick I. palembanica boards up to air-dry condition and humidity 15% takes 82 days respectively.
Recommended drying temperature and relative humidity are 43-71C and 83-38%.
Sawing/Machining; Sawing is difficult as wood clogs saw teeth and dulls cutting edges; carbide tooling recommended. Sanding: Sands satisfactorily.
Nailing: Good holding ability.
Finishing: Wood stains black in contact with ferrous metals or moisture.
Merbau wood is mainly used for flooring, furniture, paneling, fine joinery, decorative turnery, cabinetmaking, musical instruments, and specialty items. The wood is also a dye source.
Data are from Indonesia Wood Atlas Volume II, 1989; Department of Foresty Agency for Forestry Research and Development Forest Product Research and Development Centre Bogor-Indonesia.