Bangkirai Properties


BOTANICAL NAME:
Shorea laevis Ridl. (Syn.  S. laevifolia Endert),
Dipterocarpeceae family.

LOCAL NAMES
Bangkirai, Yellow Balau, Balau Kuning, Selangan batu, Anggelam, balau kumus, selangan batu kumus, thakian-samphon, mikai, selangan kumus, kumus, penapak, benuas, bangkirai, balau tanduk, chan

OTHER NAMES
Bangkirai, Yellow Balau (UK, USA, Fr, Sp, It, Sw.  NI, Gm).
Yellow Balau is usually used in Malaysia and Bangkirai is usually used in Indonesia.



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION
All over Kalimantan, Indonesia

HABITUS
The tree height may reach 50 m, the length of the clear bole is 35 to 40 m, the diameter is 100 cm and over.  The buttress is as high as 2 m. The outer bark is grey, red or brown, sometimes even dark red with grooves and peels off in small thin pieces.  The bark contains dark yellow resin.

 

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Colour
The Heartwood is brownish yellow, the sapwood yellowish pale light brown.

Texture
Wood texture ranges from fine to rather coarse

Grain
The grain is straight or interlocked.

Touch
The wood surface is smooth or alternately smooth and rough owing to the interlocked grain.

Gloss
The wood surface is glossy.

Figures
The radial section shows stripes in a lighter colour.

 

STRUCTURE

Vessels
Most vessels are solitary.  A small part of them are in groups of 2 to 4 in radial direction, sometimes in tangential and oblique lines.  They are round or oval, have a diameter of 1 00 to 300 ?? a frequency of 2 to 10 per Sq mm , and contain much tylosis.  The perforation plates are simple.

Parenchyma
The parenchyma are of the paratracheal type in the form of complete or incomplete borders to the vessels.  There are also apotracheal parenohyma in the form of short, tangential bands besides diffuse parenchyma.

Rays
The rays are homogenous, fine and short, and have a frequency of 6 to 8 per mm.  They sometimes contain a brown deposit.

Intercellular canals
The Intercellular canals are almost always smaller than vessels, occasionally of the same size.  They are arranged in long series, and contain white resin.

Fibres
The fibres are 1,203  long with a diameter of 19.9 ; wall thickness of 1.9 and lumen diameter of 16.1.

 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Specific gravity
0.91 (0.60 - 1.16) g/cm3 

Strength class
I ? II

Shrinkage
Shrinkage to oven-dry condition is 4.5 % ( R ) and 8.3 % ( T )

Fibre Saturation Point
23 %

 

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Bending strength 150 mPa 21756 psi
Modulus of elasticity 22940 mPa 3327 1000psi
Crushing strength 85 mPa 12328 psi
JANKA Hardness 7.99 kN 1798 lbs force

note: at 12% moisture content

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
 

Content
Cellulose 62.9 %
Lignin 24.0 %
Pentosan 16.8 %
Ash 1.0 %
Silica 0.4 %
Solubility
Alcohol ? benzene 3.0 %
Cold water 0.8 %
Hot water 2.6 %
1 % NaOH 10.9 %

DURABILITY AND TREATABILITY

Durability
Fungi - Class 2 - Durable
Dry Wood Borers - Heartwood durable
Termites - Class D - Durable (see "Bangkirai and Merbau Termite Resistance")

Treatability
Bangkirai wood is difficult to treat.

DRYING

2.5 cm and 4 cm thick Bangkirai boards are kiln dried from 50% to 15% in respectively 6 and 9 days in a drying temperature of 43 degrees Centigrade to 71 degrees Centigrade and a relative humidity of 84% to 38%. Bangkirai wood is difficult to dry as it easily splits, checks, and deforms.
 

WORKING PROPERTIES

Despite its hardness, bangkirai is not so difficult to work, e.g., with hardened tipped saws or it can be planed smoothly with small cutting angle. Holes should be drilled before nailing to prevent splitting.

USES

Due to its high strength and durability,- bangkirai wood is used for heavy construction under roof as well as in the open, such as bridges, railway sleepers, electric poles, flooring, marine construction, boat building, vehicular bodywork and housing.
 

Data are from Indonesia Wood Atlas Volume I, 1989; Department of Foresty Agency for Forestry Research and Development Forest Product Research and Development Centre Bogor-Indonesia.